This paper postulates that kinetics could work as a scaffold to the brain. The research is based on one of my most recent projects; “In Rhythmic Fragments”. Drawing parallels between the art of meditation and the perception of rhythmic motion in kinetic structures, I have illustrated the process of how human-beings interface and interact with a rhythmic kinetic structure: starting with perception, cognition and translation of thoughts all the way to constructing realities. The philosophies that this paper offers could be seen in the context of artworks, or in the way we construct our daily realities.
Who am I? Who are you? And are We, you and I? In the world of today, and in the era of globalisation, the internet, and of the fast-track life, the sense of self disappears. The noise around us has incentivized us towards a global revolution – a healing revolution. Introspection has become key, where one comes across meditation schools at every corner. This proves that the masses are now realizing the need for mindfulness — and are therefore seeking it. Eckhart Tolle, a revered spiritual teacher, writer and activist, promotes in his teachings the construction of mindful worlds. He does so by encouraging the practice of meditation as a habit of daily ritual (Tolle, 1997).
As an architect, I am interested in designingcontemplative rhythmic spaces; advocating the powerful effect of kinetic instruments within a certain spatial context, and in their ability to instill meditative mindfulness. How does a kinetic instrument help its observer achieve the goal of individual mindfulness? And in turn, how does a kinetic movementrelate to human perception? (chapter 2) In order to explore the questions under study, I have adopted a tangible method of research: the process consisted of designing and fabricatinga series of kinetic installationsthat allowed me to, on one hand, explore specific aspects of igniting meditative states, and on the other, learn to translate them into an architectural environment.
I will be using philosophical and reflective references to contextualize my work and frame it. The interest is twofold: 1. Looking at different internal states of consciousness, the reason being that creating a mindful environment requires the understanding of peoples’ inner-milieus, rather than just their external existence. 2. Focusing on the relationship between the external environmental factors to someone’s inner state and the individual’s will to selectively choose the factors in play. Consciousness has been approached, defined, and explored in many ways through the different schools of thought. Throughout my process, I have found that the most relevant way of framing consciousness for the purpose of this study is to adopt the approach of philosopher Michael Tye. He subdivides consciousness into four states (Figure 01). In this paper, the states of focus will be the following: (a) the phenomenal consciousnessand (b) the higher-order consciousness. These states of consciousness, which will be explained in the coming chapters, illustrate the process that one passes through when experiencing disrupting the present moment with external thoughts.
But also, if memories shape the reality of a human being, how can a mindful state allow one to suspend themselves in time? (chapter 3) What does a kinetic Structure induce in the human brain? In what capacity does a kinetic Structurehelp in constructing a mindful reality? (chapter 4).
The process of designing In Rhythmic Fragments’ Structure(Figure 02 – 03) followed several iterations of scalability — which all fall under the umbrella of exploring various wave lengths and mechanisms. IRFcame to be the culmination of research methods that ended with an optimal scale of implementation (chapter 5).Based on the public interaction with IRF, this project has proven to hold prospective potential within an architectural context. IRF is therefore treated as a physical tool that molds a user’s mental tool – the brain – and hence allows for its scaffolding (Stelerny, 2010).
“it was but yesterday I thought myself a fragment quivering without rhythm in the sphere of life.
Now I know that I am the sphere, and all life in rhythmic fragments moves within me.”
- Gibran Khalil Gibran
- I am what I see
a. The Perceptual Apparatus
The capacity to perceive the world around us seems so effortless that we tend to take it for granted. One’s eyes are identifying two upside down distorted images which their brain transforms into a lively three-dimensional environment. What really happens is that whatever one observes is processed within their brain, causing them to simultaneously create a symbolic representation to whatever object or event that one perceives (Ramachandran, 2003). The nature of conscious experience is directed by the anatomical organization of the neurological pathways that run through the brain, distilling and interpreting the visual input to generate the perception of something. The way the brain comes to build a perception is partly by recognizing things that have been seen before and been stored in memory, and partly by locating objects spatially in the visual field and assessing our proximity to them. These two functions are operated by two separate parts of the brain, simultaneously. This is how the brain operates when one is trying to reach out to something or walk towards something or refrain from bumping into a certain obstacle, and whatever the retina perceives diverges through the optical nerve to these two parts. That being said, I would like to introduce a third layer related to vision: the whole-body illusions caused by what is observed.
I would like to draw attention to the feelings induced when we perceive still or moving objects external to the body. Why do certain still beautiful architectures or sceneries make us feel things? Why do moving objects draw our attention? And if the movement perceived was repetitive and rhythmic, how would it affect the body? I would like to argue that perception is ultimately an embodied experience (Keiverstein, 2012). Human beings are highly visual creatures; they seethrough their bodies. In fact, the body undergoes constant dynamic changes triggered by the perpetual information received by the brain, and following every new thought, a series of countless changes emerge: the reaction chain triggered by the perception of something causes the pancreas and the adrenal glands to secrete new hormones, different areas of the brain start to experience an increase of the electrical current and a release of various neurochemicals, the spleen and the thymus send information to modify the immune system, gastric juices start flowing, new enzymes processed by the liver start to appear, heart-rate oscillates, blood flow circulating in the capillaries of the body fluctuates (Dispenza, 2007) – which in turn, accentuates that our perceptive experiences induce neurological and physiological changes therefore involving the body and its system as a whole.
Because this paper contemplates situations that involve kinetics, the examples used will be focused on situations that entangles rhythmic flows: after several iterations of observing and questioning people that I placed in states of contemplating a repetitive anticipated motion, 80% of them stated that after a few minutes, they began noticing a strong correlation between their breathing pattern and that of the rhythmic structure. Some even described a relative mirroring between both patterns. In other words, the atmosphere that the piece forms is projected onto the bodies of the observers, resulting in a synchronicity between the observer and the observed moving Structure.
I envision this experience as a type of reflective meditation. The kinetic Structure becomes an extension to the body of the observer, and a scaffold to the brain of the observer (Stelerny, 2010). Primarily, meditation starts with the regulation of breathing, which precedes the withdrawal of attention from external stimulus.I would like to clarify here that there exist two types of traditional meditation: (a) Concentrative meditation (Goleman, 1988) and (b) Mindfulness meditation (Kristeller, 2007). Examples of the first type of meditation – concentrative meditation – include painting mandalas, chanting, praying, repeating a mantra. This type of meditation forces the mind to focus on a specific activity until one transcends thought entirely. Nonetheless, if one practices transcendental meditation, does it result in the ability to break old thought patterns? The difference between concentrative meditationand mindfulness meditationis that the latter allows one to choose what you want to focus on rather than being forced to pay attention to a specific piece of music, or object or situation. I believe that the kinetic Structures that I am exploring could potentially be used as a tool for meditation; teaching the brain how to focus on the mechanism by enabling the visual apparatus to affect both brain and bodily sensations. By shifting their focus in and out through a visual tool, and given that the brain is endowed with neuroplasticity(Dąbrowski et al., 2019).I hypothesizethat one may eventually be able to experience similar shifting without the use of an external tool, similar to the practice of emotional intelligence that Daniel Goleman strongly advocates (Goleman, 2006). In order to study the validity of this postulation, I am going to focus on and analyze the observers’ intrapersonal experience of In Rhythmic Fragments.
b. Unfolding experience through Vision
“Perception precedes reality”
- Andy Warhol
The brain is a metaphor engine that contains association areas within it; Lawrence Barsalou subjectively speaks about the perceptual symbols generated by the mind for everything that is perceived since early childhood (Barsalou, 1999). Different cultural backgrounds, distinctive pasts, unique experiences, result in individuals having their own perceptual symbols, consequently, their own worlds. When someone is perceiving something for the first time, new memories form and new perceptual symbolsemerge, and it lies under the umbrella of new emotions or feelings being created. In fact, the visual system is always influenced by what it has seen and done previously but improvises along the way.
A humans’ capacity of seeing is virtually unlimited. What we take in while building our world consists of what can be fitted into the architecture of our world from what we see. When perceiving a Structure like IRF, the state of consciousness that the observer gets into lacks discriminatory consciousnessto everything that is external. While forming new perceptual symbols, the whole of the person observing the piece gets immersed with the repetitive movement by focusing fully on the present. The sensations and the feelings that affect the body induces a state of phenomenal consciousness(Tye, 1995): the observers’ entire situated body is affected by the environment perceived and by the new emotions that have developed.
The phenomenological philosopher Merleau-Ponty argues that “it is the body that gears us into a meaningful world” (Merleau-Ponty, 1945). This phenomenal immediate feeling or meaning that our body associates to the things that we perceive through our senses, is explained by weighing what you take in from the world.
This phenomenal condition is what we feel when we are situated in the present moment. What are the main elements that affect one’s sense of presence?
3. I am what I remember
a. Memories affecting one’s sense of presence
As days pass, and as events erupt – one collects his/her memories. We thereafter selectively filtrate those memories with what remains and what dissipates. One’s memories are a collection of thoughts, ideas and methodologies; hibernating memories are in constant existence awaiting their trigger of rebirth. I would like to introduce two types of memories that will be re-mentioned later on: (1) semantic memories and (2) episodic memories. Episodic memoriesare the recollections related to personal experiences. Conversely,Semantic Memoriesare not drawn from personal experiences, it is a long-term type of memory that explains how one understands concepts and common knowledge.
In the context of being fully immersed in the present moment, some people have the ability to engulf in a flow-statewhile others indulge in states where the mind time travels: when this state takes place, the brain starts being occupied by thoughts associated to the past and the future instead of being anchored in the present moment. In brain scans, this activity lights up something called the Default Mode Network, it is what allows us to call up memories or imagine the future but it also lets us endlessly ruminate about regrets and fears: it is what some Buddhists call the “Monkey Mind” (Figure 05). Being aware of the distraction is considered a moment of awakening because this is when one can tame the “Monkey Mind”. During this process, when one directs their attention back to the point of focus, an additional part of the brain lights up: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is the region that differentiates primates from other animals, it is part of the control center that helps one to focus. Meditation strengthens the connection for the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the DMN: brain scans have shown that the DMNs of expert meditators are less active, which could be caused by the mental muscle that meditation sessions develop. Being mindful, is to be able to bring back the mind to the present state even when your brain makes you inhabit two spaces at once. Meditation can make one master their own mind because the activity in their empathy circuit increased with practice.
b. Unfolding experience through memories
In Chapter 2, I have illustrated the immediate response of experiencing IRF to be one of a phenomenal state of consciousness, where the experience happens not only in the brain but is embodied as well. When we talk about where the brain travels, another state of consciousness appears: Higher-Order consciousness (Figure 01). I am framing this state of consciousness in the context of where one is no longer aware of the visual sensations or perceptions of their present state: thoughts are lying elsewhere. When one reaches a mindful reality, they gain the ability to choose the objects that are contained within their higher-order thoughts (Tye, 1995). In other words, one would be able to choose when to be in the present moment and when to wander elsewhere: one would be in control of their emotions and not at the control of their emotions. However, for someone to gain the ability to tailor their thoughts and emotions to a dynamically changing environment, the bodily affect plays a major role. Moreover, even though the brain has a memory which programs it to react according to what the muscle memories of the brain is trained to do, the neuroplasticity of the brain allows change (Dąbrowski et al., 2019): it allows adaptation to new environments and allows the development of new patterns or habits that are most certainly related to the creation of new memories and new symbols and new responses. This proves that it is possible to tame the “Monkey Mind”.
Culminating the previously stated points in the context of my artwork; (1) ability to choose the point of focus and (2) ability to adapt to new patterns, the question that I am putting forward here is: How could a kinetic sculpture, through its visual input, affect the way one deals with their memories? And In turn, affect the way one forms new memories?
In Rhythmic Fragmentsallows one to be in a meditative state where the observer is fully in control of the present moment. However, if I want to narrow this down, we are all unique individuals and all of us have individual experiences, but if I could divide the people experiencing IRF into three groups, I would break it into the following: (1) individuals who get into deep states of flow – which is not ideal because there is a high probability for those people to get deeply submerged in this state of attention where the risk of getting stuck in this state rises – (2) mindful individuals who can choose their point of focus, (3) individuals that are controlled by their minds and inhabit many places at once losing their sense of presence. I am suggesting that spaces containing repetitive rhythmic contemplative kinetics, similar to IRF, allows the practice of being in different states on consciousness; jumping from a state to another allows one to be aware of how thoughts affect their everyday lives. One could alter the mind and reach a mindful state of consciousness no matter which group they belong to depending on their level of self-awareness.
- I am what I imagine
a. Constructing realities through the illusion of novelty
I have explained in depth the aspect of memory through my work; but it goes beyond that simple notion. Human beings store memories in their brains and correspondingly have the ability to create new memories. I often ask myself, as an artist, what is the foundation of one’s imagination? Where does it come from? Are some people more “creative” than others? By creation, I do not mean it in the conventional sense, I mean the creation of worlds. All of us – individuals – are creators of our own individual realities (Von Foerester, 2003). I would like this chapter to begin with the re-enforcement of the fact that everything that we perceive – in the phenomenal sense, everything that we remember and everything that we imagine is based on past memories.
Many times, humans invent episodic memories that have never happened before. They can confidently describe those memories as real ones. What really happens in the brain when occurrences like this transpire? Everything that we imagine consists of the deconstruction of several past memories – partly episodic, partly semantic – into lots of little parts. When a human being imagines a situation that never happened, the brain usually passes through this weird unexplainable phase where it selects bits and pieces from the little parts that have been dissected before and combines them into new assemblies. Those imaginations that feel new and feel like something never seen before – sometimes they even feel fantastical – are related to situations that have been seen and done in the past.
Any kind of imagination that crosses an individuals’ mind, and everything that one can imagine is somehow a combination of things that one remembers. Since the brain does not invent completely new things; the imagination depends on individual past memories. The reality that one constructs through their imagination and the reality that one constructs at a certain present moment, is all stuff that one learnt already at some point. This all relates to episodic memories, but what of feelings? What of the re-creation of new feelings and emotions?
b. World-making across existing atmospheres
The reason why art exists is to on one hand critique what already exists, and on the other hand, to allow room for the intangible to happen. In Rhythmic Fragments, or such-like built atmospheres by artists, induces this sense within the observers. It allows one to be in touch with their memories and internal states to therefore construct individual realities. This notion is not globally applicable but rather it is an individual experience where memories differ between people even when they come from the same cultural backgrounds. This kind of artwork – building atmospheres – teases the observers’ imagination to construct an atmosphere that taps into his/her individual memories. I believe that the IRF could also be considered as some sort of apparatus that helps one create new imaginations: the shared reality that the designer constructed physically can be “fictioned” into many different atmospheres by different people. Similar to the concept mentioned previously regarding the sense of presencewhile meditating, this state of phenomenal consciousness of imagining and building an atmosphere allows one to be situated in the present moment. Somehow, the brain treats imagination in the same way that it treats memories, which explains why being creative reaches its ultimate stage when one forgets previous creations and just be in the present letting themselves flow.
Coming from a background of architecture, I am fascinated by the creation of new atmospheres in the conventional architectural sense, and as a kinetic designer who is exploring moving objects within spaces, those two interests make me ask the question: could both static and moving contemplational atmospheres result in phenomenal states of consciousness where the human as a whole gets affected? Does it matter that there is nothing moving within them? I am interested in motion, and I am interested in using the nature of repetition to achieve meditation, however, could there be other ways to achieve this state that I am after?
Peter Zumthor emphasizes on the sensory aspect that Architecture offers (Zumthor, 2006). He looks at static architecture in the phenomenal sense (Figure 07). In fact, does it not induce some sort of phenomenal consciousness? Individual observation and sensual thinking emerges from the experience of a built environment. The sensations that one gets from architecture could be deeply meditative where one suspends themselves in time to enjoy a situated environment, while channelling their inner-self to imagine meaningful realities.
- I am a rhythmic fragment
In Rhythmic Fragmentsis a biophilic instrument that aims to instill a sense of mesmerisation. The mensurated motion that the piece offers, places the observers in a highly contemplative state, allowing them to enter their internal worlds. However,the level of absorption that one gets into differs from one observer to the other as it depends on one’s level of emotional intelligence(Goleman,2006). The main purpose behind this project starts with engaging the mind in the lived experience; To be mindful means to be in a state of mind that is no longer pre-occupied with the past or the future (Kristeller, 2007). Therefore, it means to be in a state of presence where past behavioral patterns and future worries don’t disrupt the flow of being immersed in the present moment.
Unlike traditional meditation, IRF is considered a tool that can scaffold the brain (Stelerny, 2010). The process starts with the visual apparatus (chapter 2), where perception grabs the whole and affects not only the mind but the body as well. Once the whole becomes in complete sync with the rhythmic space, the mind starts to wander (chapter 3). The way one deals with internal feelings and emotions affects the way they perceive the world. Even though humans live in a relatively shared reality we have constructed individual and personal realities through ways of world making (Goodman, 2013). Each of us has the ability to modify this constructed reality by taking advantage of the brain’s neuro-plastic quality, thereby affectingour cognitive system as whole beings (chapter 4) (Figure 05).
Prior to this project, my partner – Dalia Todary-Michael – and I worked on a series of iterations to explore sine waves: we started by studying the formation of waves through strings (Figure 07) while simultaneously investigating linkage systems (Figure 08). The mechanism of the project ended up being basedon a series of multiple linkage systems driven by a single rotary point. As one observes the details of the piece, they start to notice that the longitudinal waves are transversal at different amplitudes (Figure 09). The choice of the materials, clear acrylics for the fluid motions versus mild steel for the structure and the core of the shaft mechanism, was selected to allow the piece to have different qualities that I – as a designer – cannot control. Depending strictly on the environment surrounding it, wewere eager to see the different possibilities that could be gained once we started adding different layers to the atmosphere being created. We noticed that the tips light up differently depending on how the light is projected onto them. We also noticed that light and shadows could transform the entire atmosphere. The transformation of the reflection that IRF holds is ruled by the surrounding.
It is important to note that IRF runs at a continuous velocity producing only one sine wave frequency. Whereas Reuben Margolin’s “Murmuration Wave” (Figure 10) contains different frequencies of waves affecting observers’ phenomenal states differently, but it also runs at a continuous speed. Anthony Howe’s sculptures (Figure 11) are driven by wind which results in different speeds for a continuous movement; the elements within the sculpture are running at the same speed but at different amplitudes. It is interesting to see the endless possibilities that a designer can take to affect observers’ phenomenal states of consciousness (Tye, 1995).
b. Through the lens of Layla
The previous chapters include information from science with some reflection, and all together illustrate the atmosphere and experience that I am imagining. In order to make what I am unfolding immediate, I would like to end the last chapter of this paper with a story-based narrative. I will use the third person narrative to describe the meaning behind this project, as it relates mostly to the experience of internal states: Layla is an elderly woman who has passed through post traumatic syndromes of the Lebanese civil war in the late twentieth century. It is through her eyes, through her memories and her imagination that we will live her experience.
“Layla is a mother, a wife, a grandmother and friend. She has lived through 15 years of civil war. Surprisingly, she describes those days of her life as the most joyous and the “best days” that she has experienced throughout her 73 years of existence. Just like any other human being, her memories -whether semantic or episodic- shape the world that she constructs for herself today. I would like to add a note that It is very common, in Lebanon, to hear that our parents and ancestors who have witnessed the war, deliberately choose not to mention those days, or maybe sometimes do, but very rarely. It was a Thursday afternoon, minutes after her children departed to Paris after a long summer break. Breaking her everyday morning routine, Layla decides to go for a walk on her own. The sun was beginning to set across the sea, when suddenly, she perceives from afar a tiny little reflective object that grabbed her attention; her body was drawn to walk closer to this mysterious lively creature. For some reason, the very first glance that her body felt when she perceived this flickering entity from afar, was the same feeling that she had seen when she saw flickering of light poles when the electricity cut during the war. As she got closer, the scale was getting larger and the tubes of the structure appeared to be still . She passed through a weird state of phenomenal consciousness (Tye, 1995); here she experienced the same thing she felt 47 years ago when she went to pick up her captured brother from a prison in Beirut, 3 weeks after he went missing. Perhaps those tubes recalled the bars that she perceived that day and it still haunts her. And then she stood still, her eyes were concentrated on the shaft of the mechanism that reminded her of her fathers’ library that collapsed when everyone was running and hiding because of the shooting. Her world turned dark, although it was not her intention nor her will to be in that state. Getting even closer to the structure, she started imagining the urban corridors that were across their house back in 1972; this seemed to shift her mood to a peaceful atmosphere.”
The perceptual symbols (Barsalou, 1999) that her mind created 47 years ago are suddenly recalled because her brain has been programmed to replay this feeling of “dread” whenever her body and mind get in this phenomenal state of consciousness. In fact, the brain records feelings and replays them. The more a certain feeling is replayed, the more one is prone to experiencing it again and again.
“This piece that was standing in front of her, embodied her fully. The movement which was rhythmic and repetitive, allowed her to at some point be able to shift her focus to this mere repetitive motion. Contemplating this movement has induced in her a feeling of calmness that affected her breathing pattern. There was a race in her head, she was fading in and out of her thoughts, juggling between the present, past and future. “
Layla did not choose to use an external resource to play the same functional role that her mind would have exerted. The external resource – In Rhythmic fragments – then becomes a part of the cognitive system of Layla. The kinetic object allows her to better achieve her embodied desire: which is to be emotionally stable. Therefore, when she observes this rhythmic movement, her eyes see it through her body and not merely through her brain. In some way, the sculpture is the scaffold for the meditative state of Layla; the sculpture holds Layla’s mind and her whole existence until she reaches that meditative state. IRF can then simply dissipate to allow Layla to stand freely, seeing that the scaffold is no longer necessary. However, in order to get there, the Structure has to hold Layla’s thoughts in order to prevent her from collapsing. The meditative state in this scenario is not external, present within an outer environment. Rather, it is internal. IRF therefore serves as an aid for Layla to access her internal state.
Humans are embodied beings surrounded by an environment. Factors in the environment along with factors in our bodies affect the state of our brains. In Rhythmic fragmentsand the various iterations that came with it embodies the scaffold to a specific internal process for cognition. This makes way to the construction of mindful realities.
Today’s culture is engulfed by the use of technology. Technology has taken over almost every layer of most societies and started to infiltrate the discipline of neuropsychology. In our current times, the world is experiencing a much needed “healing revolution”, where people feel that the traditional healing strategies are no longer sufficient to deliver effective results. Seeking a greater comprehensive future, a large part of the global society is in quest of tools that would help them recognize their psychological and/or physiological patterns through heuristic experimentation.
Meditation has proven to be a leading method of achieving such healing: It is about focusing on an invisible internal course of action that is in no means easy to grasp or to access; the kinetic installation – In rhythmic fragments – is there to externalize this process and in turn transform it into a visible, tangible object that could lead to a meditative state through its immersive quality of interaction. In this instance, IRF materializes one’s brain waves and embodies the effect that Meditation enacts on the human brain. In this paper, I focused on perception and on the visual apparatus of a human being and explained how contemplating a periodic movement can put one in a reflective and meditative condition through anticipation. The different states of consciousness that one could potentially experience fully depend on one’s own level of mindfulness. The repetition of subjecting someone to IRF would teach them to: 1. control their thoughts and 2. choose which space – a virtual corner in one’s mind – they want to inhabit in the moment. Many factors come into play when exploring focus point meditation. Let us assume that it becomes an apprentice system: in that case, meditating through the use of a tool – more specifically through a kinetic object or sculpture – holds heuristic advantages because it enables a user to discover their ability to be in control of their emotions, thoughts and feelings. Through my research, I have chosen to qualify the extent that practicing meditation through vision could hold on the way one constructs their world. However, it brings into question, what of what I hear? What I smell? And what I touch? Following this paper, it is integral to explore the variables that could occur when we emphasize the senses and their effects on human experiences. One wonders, what is enough – and in fact, is there enough – to achieve a mindful reality?
“Everything is created twice, first in the mind and then in reality” – Robin Sharma.
- Tye, M. (1995). The Burning House. In: T. Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Kansas: Imprint Academic.
- Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and Semantic memory. In: E. Tulving and W. Donaldson, ed., Organisation of memory. London: ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD, pp.382 – 402.
- Ramachandran, V. (2003). The Emerging Mind. London: Profile Books.
- Pallasmaa, J. (2014). Space, place and atmosphere. Emotion and Peripheral Perception in Architectural Experience. Lebenswelt. Aesthetics and philosophy of experience 4.1, vol, 1934, issue 1987 pp. 239 – 245.
- Pretor-Pinney, G. (2014). The wave watcher’s companion. New York: Perigee.
- Noble, D. (2008). The Music of Life. Oxford: OUP Oxford.
- Craik, K. (1967). The nature of explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P.
- Rossi, A. (2007). The architecture of the city. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
- Van der Zwaag, M., Westerink, J. and van den Broek, E. (2011). Emotional and Psychophysiological Responses to Tempo, Mode, and Percussiveness. Musicae Scientiae, 15(2), pp.250-269.
- Tucker, D., Hartry-Speiser, A., McDougal, L., Luu, P. and deGrandpre, D. (1999). Mood and spatial memory: emotion and right hemisphere contribution to spatial cognition. Biological Psychology, 50(2), pp.103-125.
- Freedberg, D. and Gallese, V. (2007). Motion, emotion and empathy in aesthetic experience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(5), pp.197-203.
- Barsalou, L. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 22(04).
- Kiverstein, J. (2012). The meaning of Embodiment.
- Goleman, D. (1988). The meditative mind: The varieties of meditative experience. New York: Putnam.
- Hanh, T N. (1975). The miracle of mindfulness. Boston: Beacon Press.
- Kristeller, J L. (2007). Mindfulness meditation
- Stelerny, K (2010). Minds: Extended of Scaffolded?
- Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional Intelligence
- Von Foerster, H. (2003). On Constructing a Reality. In: Understanding Understanding. Springer, New York.
- Zumthor, P. (2006). Atmospheres. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.
- Bohme, G. and Engels-Schwarzpaul, A. (2017). Atmospheric architectures: The aesthetics of felt spaces.
- Tolle, E. (1997). The Power of Now. Canada: Namaste Publishing.
- Dąbrowski, J., Czajka, A., Zielińska-Turek, J., Jaroszyński, J., Furtak-Niczyporuk, M., Mela, A., Poniatowski, Ł., Drop, B., Dorobek, M., Barcikowska-Kotowicz, M. and Ziemba, A. (2019). Brain Functional Reserve in the Context of Neuroplasticity after Stroke.
- Goodman, N. (2013). Ways of worldmaking. Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett.
- Merleau-Ponty, M. and Smith, C. (1945).Phenomenology of perception.
List of Figures
- Figure 01 – Ghaziri, S. (2019). “Illustration of Michael Tye’s four states of consciousness” AI.
- Figure 02 – Ghaziri, S. (2019). “In Rhythmic Fragments” JPEG.
- Figure 03 – Todary-Michael, D. (2019). “In Rhythmic Fragments” JPEG.
- Figure 04 – Andre Masson (1940) “Goethe and the metamorphosis of plants” JPEG.
- Figure 05 – Unknown. (n.d) “The Monkey Mind” JPEG.
- Figure 06 – Ludwig, S. (2007). “Architecture by Peter Zumthor” JPEG.
- Figure 07 – Ghaziri, S. (2019). “Cognitive system of an individual experiencing IRF” JPEG.
- Figure 08 – Ghaziri, S. and Todary-Michael, D. (2019). “Strings iterations” JPEG.
- Figure 09 – Todary-Michael, D. (2019). “Linkages and Gears” F360.
- Figure 10 – Ghaziri, S. and Todary-Michael, D. (2019). “In Rhythmic Fragments” JPEG.
- Figure 11 – Margolin, R. (2016). “Murmuration Wave” JPEG.
- Figure 12 – Howe, A. (2016). “Sculpting the wind” JPEG.
Internal state of being.
“Structure” in this paper refers to my project “In Rhythmic Fragments”.
IRF stands for the title of the project In Rhythmic Fragments.
Related to visual perception
The explanation of this statement will be clearer towards the end of the paper
Check Figure 01.
Shared reality – external environment.
“Two spaces” as in the present physiological space and thoughts which take you to another virtual space.
“We” as in Dalia – my partner – and I.
IRF appears to be still – not moving – if you are placed directly facing it (not at an angle) and from afar.