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Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL

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  • On September 30, 2019

How can we change the current global water crisis problem by creating exposure to people and improve their relationship with their garment?

Acknowledging people’s habit in consuming fast fashion and the fact that the fashion industry is the second-largest polluter, this design thesis documents a range of prototypes to find a way to encourage people from being a customer to become a custodian of their garments by creating various different installations and interactive experiences.

Several experiments have been attempted to find the most efficient way to create a better relationship between the human and the garment. It raises questions such as, how bad is the impact of the fashion industry on the global water crisis? What is the most efficient way to communicate this problem to the public? To support this research, we collect data on the impacts of the fashion industry to the global water crisis and translate it into interactive installations.

It is hypothesized that as an interactive installation will be able to expose more information regarding the impact of the fashion industry on the global water crisis. We aimed that through this project, people can be more conscious of their fashion consumption and become the custodian of their garment.

I. Introduction

The United Nations Environment Assembly declared in 2018 that the fashion industry is the second most polluting industry.

The world today is starting to have a global water crisis, where 20 megacities are now experiencing water scarcity or drought conditions. Cape Town is having a severe water crisis, limiting people to have 50 liters of water per person per day. In comparison, the average U.S. citizen consume 375 liters of water per day. At the same time, due to rapid population growth, buildings are being built on floodplains that causes floods and severe damage. The world has a surplus of water but a scarcity of clean, uncontaminated water. This is not sustainable for the future, and the growth of the fashion industry worsens the situation.

In 2017, the fashion industry is worth £ 32 billion to the UK economy, which is increasing by 5.4% in comparison to 2016. Overall this is 1.6% higher than the rest of the economy.

In the 2018 report, McKinsey Global Fashion Index declared that the most common words used in fashion are “digital” and “fast”. This is due to the improved and faster availability of advertising products through social media and new technologies, such as visual search. The time between the discovery and purchasing is in seconds because the consumer wants their garment immediately. It is predicted that in 2030 the global apparel consumption will increase by 63%, from 62 million tons today to 102 million tons, which is equivalent to more than 500 billion additional T-shirts.

People’s habits of buying clothes have changed throughout history, from being a product of primary need to a tertiary need where people can buy and throw away clothes easily. This is due to the low price and quality of the garment produced by fast-fashion retailers. Emerged from the late 70s and early 80s, when technology started to advance, manufacturing started to outsource overseas, and the increasing number of synthetic fabrics incorporated in the garment. Fast-fashion is a term used for retailers that produce garments rapidly to meet consumer demand, and this becomes faster with the rise of social media.

The British Summer Purchase Statistic

The Oxford English Dictionary online defines Fashion as “A popular or the latest style of clothing, hair, decoration, or behavior.” Starting early 2000s, the fashion industry has evolved a lot, and the industry has divided into fast fashion and slow fashion. Researchers defined fast-fashion as, “a marketing tool to drive retail footfall. It allows retailers to make up-to-date product offers to their customer base frequently.” Slow fashion is the opposite of fast fashion, where all the garments are created with higher quality that can last longer. Just like the name, fast-fashion produces its products faster than ever, they usually release almost 52 collections a year, whereas 20 years ago there were only 5-6 collections a year. The production of clothes became so cheap and they are being treated as disposable, which creates excessive waste. Fashion designer, Phoebe English called fast-fashion as the ‘monstrous disposable industry’.

Therefore, is it possible to design an interactive experience space that brings the participant and the garment into a dialogue, assisting them in the transition from a consumer to a custodian? How to design and recreate an interactive space that is able to provide information about the impacts of fast-fashion on the global water crisis? To what extent the user can have a dialogue in an interactive space and process information about the global water crisis in the fashion industry? is a project that aims to bring people’s attention to the impact of fast-fashion on the global water crisis, by creating various different prototypes and experiences. As a group, we believe that there is room for improvement in the future of fashion. Fashion is a big part of us and we do see that there is a lack of exposure to the global water crisis. We notice that improvements have been made in the past few years, yet it is not focusing on the amount of water used in the fashion industry. This improvement is still not visible for the average buyer. Through this project, we want to encourage people to shift from a customer to a custodian of their garment. will be showing different ways of communicating important facts of the global water crisis through technology, and help the user to understand the deeper meaning behind them. The project does not have enough capability to change the world, but we want the user to be able to make and explore better purchasing choices through this interactive installation. The project will still be ongoing at the time when this thesis paper is submitted, therefore the design details will not be shown.

II. The Involvement of the Fashion Industry to The Global Water Crisis

The fashion industry has improved its social and environmental performance in the past few years according to the 2019 Pulse Score. Pulse Score is the number given by the Boston Consulting Group and Sustainable Apparel Coalition to rate the social and environmental performance of the fashion industry in the past few years. Most of the fashion brands pulse shoe improvements are shown through the performance quartile along the pulse curve. About 40% of the industry has not yet reached beyond Phase One of the Pulse Curve. This result is in a slow development in the industry, therefore it cannot reach the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals or meet the Paris Agreement.

The water life cycle footprint in the fashion industry is separated into stages, which are: raw materials, processing and manufacture, and also during customer use. In the UK by itself, the estimated water footprint in one year is around 6,300 Mm3 of water-based on annual clothing use, which is 2,488,366 tonnes. This creates an average of around 2,500 m3 water footprint, per every ton of clothing in use in one year. Overall, it estimated the total water footprint for the raw material stage is 2,202m3/tonnes, processing and manufacturing stage is 31 m3/tonnes, the consumer in-use stage is 15 m3/tonnes. 

Total Water Foot Print

The UN predicted in their 2019 report that over 2 billion people will be experiencing high water stress and on average around 11%. But 31 countries experiencing water stress between 25% (defined as the minimum water stress) to 70% (considered as serious water stress). The consumption of water stress is mostly from the agriculture sector, which the fashion industry has contributed in for their consumption of raw materials.

Global water demand by sector (2014-2040)

A boy in the middle of a drought

The number of water stress might increase as the increasing number of populations and demands. Some important points about water stress: firstly, the data shown in figure 2.4 averaged over the entire year. From this data, it is not showing the period of water scarcity because the availing of water varies from season to season. Secondly, the data in figure 2.4 combined all the sources of water in one country that vary at a different location. Thirdly, the physical water stress is not based on the economic water scarcity, this is the result of the amount of existence of water resources. More towards the lack of infrastructure to collect, transport, and treating the water for daily use. Nonetheless, the UN estimates that the degradation of the natural environment and unsustainable pressure on the global water crisis will continue. This will affect 45 percent of the global gross domestic product (GDP), 52 percent of the world population, and 40 percent of the global grain production by 2050.

Physical Water Stress

II.I  Improvements in the fashion industry

“The volume of water consumed by the fashion industry today is already large with nearly 79 billion cubic meters – enough to fill nearly 32 million Olympic – size swimming pools.”

– @fash_revolution

In the fashion industry, raw materials require the most amount of water that creates around 5 billion m3 of water footprint. In the process of growing the raw material, the location of the plantation is important. Not just the distance to the manufacturer but also the location of the land. If a farmer decided to farm the raw material on dry land, this means it requires more water and also it will creates more water footprint. Therefore, by focusing on the water efficiency within the clothing fiber and fabric production, the garment manufacturer and production need to focus on the location. Bethany Noble, writer for ethical and sustainable fashion, estimated that around 20% of the industrial water pollution in the world comes from the treatment and dyeing textiles. Not to mention they are using around 8,000 synthetic chemicals to turn the raw materials into textiles. To dye fabrics alone, it requires 150 liters of water per kilogram of a garment. H&M estimates that production and manufacture 47% of the environmental impacts and 6% of the processing materials impacting the water. In most of the countries that manufacture all these garments usually located along the waterways where water is easily accessed. These factories use 1.5 billion cubic meters of fresh water each year. This amount of water is used to prepare the yarn and fabrics or dyeing your garments, which involves tons of chemicals. Usually, these factories release their water waste directly to waterways, which creates water pollution. To measure the chemical pollution in the wastewater requires complex procedures due to the hazardous substances in it. It is predicted that many fashion manufacturers that have not yet performed any advanced analysis for their wastewater migration. The biggest struggle on the stage production and manufacture is the limited transparency of the manufacturer with the consumer.

Today, social media plays a big impact on environmental responsibility in the fashion industry. There are lots of small fashion designers, and artists who contribute to spreading the information regarding this matter. This results in the consumer being more aware of sustainability which affects their purchasing decisions. As a group, we believe in the future of fashion and we believe there is room for improvement. Being a team of fashion lovers ourselves, we do see that there is a lack of exposure on this issue, even though there has been major improvements during the last few years. The issue is not visible to the average buyer and we would love to make this an experience that is both interesting for the participant and informative.

According to the Pulse of Fashion Industry, it shows that more companies are dedicating some part of their production to sustainability. They are working together with other suppliers to improve the material mix and change their circularity of the business model. Re-thinking of sourcing their materials is one of the most significant ways to improve the use of water in the fashion industry. One of the biggest water consumptions is the process of growing cotton, which requires around 7000 liters per kg of cotton in Israel. In Asia, it requires more water to grow cotton due to inefficient irrigation crop methods. More than 60 percent of water is lost before reaching the fields because of the poor infrastructure. Growing cotton requires freshwater, which may then be polluted by toxic pesticides, which some farmers use to protect the plants from insects. Therefore, around 50 percent of the total cost of cotton production is to take care of the toxic pesticide that is used to grow cotton that contaminates the groundwater. This is not just bad for the soil, but it will also affect the people that live near the area.

Improving the raw materials used helps sustain cotton growth and enhances the community’s way of living. There are more businesses that are trying to improve the environmental impacts of producing cotton, which is the Better Cotton Initiative. They are different than other cotton farmer because they are using less water for irrigation, for example in China they are using 10% less water. Other improvements that is made is through using organic cotton, which means it uses no pesticides that can harm the water and soil. Even though these products are available in the market, there are lots of people that do not understand the meaning of organic cotton. They are not aware that by buying one piece of organic cotton shirt can change the world, because they do not see the direct impact to themselves and end up buying the cheaper non-organic alternatives. According to the 2019 Pulse Report, 38% of consumers are start to switch to brands that are more conscious of its environmental and social practices. This is becoming a trend, more people are considering sustainability as part of their decision-making framework. If this continues, it is just a matter of time before responsible practices become the main factor when purchasing a product.

GenCloth Toolkit by Elizabeth Bigger

More designers are aware of the environmental problems caused by the fashion industry and getting their hands dirty to improve this situation. A project called GenCloth by Elizabeth Bigger is one of the designers that are re-thinking about the future of fashion manufacturing. In this project, she is exploring how the fashion designers can improve the way they manufacture clothing by using 3D software kits to improve rapid client customization. The Business of Fashion declared that personalization is the key to e-commerce today, by doing this it makes people feel like they are getting a tailored shopping experience. Bigger’s approach to this phenomenon is through new technology by making a database to aid in designing customized pieces for clients and this process can speed up the production within the local micro-factories. The production process maintains durability and sustainability that adds more value to each garment. She also uses advance digital technologies that help the designer to rethink about the process of traditional fashion design for patterning and drafting. This method helps to increase a heavier and sustainable production cycle, creating more positive growth within the fashion industry and produce positive effects for our planet, society, and ourselves.

II.II How do other industries solve this problem?

The food industry is the other industry that also has a big impact to the environment due to the increasing number of food consumption. More people are trying to spread information to change people’s perception and the way people consume food. FOOD: Bigger than the Plate (2019) is an exhibition at the Victoria and Albert (V&A) Museum in London, poses the question of how people’s food choices can lead to a more delicious and sustainable future. Chefs, farmers, scientists, and artists projects are displayed in this exhibition. The visitors are taken through the food cycle from growing to eating, therefore we learn about how our food travels and processed before it is served to us. This exhibition shows the different side of food that we tend to ignore since food is part of our daily life and the public is not aware of the details in the world of food. Catherine Flood, the co-curator, saw that there is a growing desire for the future in food that is both better for the people and the planet.

We are shaping the world through how we eat and that makes it one of the most exciting materials to work with. There’s a huge amount of creative energy right now focused on questions of food. We wanted to give that space to bring it to the public,”

– Catherine Flood, the co-curator at the V&A Museum

This exhibition does not just feed you facts about food, but also allow you to have “taste experiences” through one of the projects by LOCI Food Lab. This project allows the visitor to identify the attributes of the food system: composting, farming, trading, and eating. These stages are important for the visitor to know, so that they know the source of the food. At the end of the exhibition, the curator let the visitor to decide important ‘words’ to describe their food the most. They will be then served with food based on their word choices, and you will be given a receipt that shows how many people agree with you. This kind of interaction helps to increase people’s curiosity towards the topic, which is food. This exhibition, raises questions such as what kind of food people want to consume? The way they curate this exhibition by giving them more interaction with food creates a better connection with the problem. Therefore, after visiting this exhibition, the visitors can rethink their food choices and realize the impact on the environment based on their food choices.

Center for Genomic Gastronomy by LOCI Food

The food industry is the another industry that has a higher turnover than the fashion industry due to the increasing number of population and consumption. People consume more food in the past few years, more people are eating processed and fast food because they do not have much time to prepare their food. They also choose to eat more meat instead of vegetable because they feel it is a tastier source of protein. Consuming more meat is the main reason people get diabetes. What the Health? is a Netflix documentary about the link between the food that we consume and the diseases. All this time we think there is a connection between genetics and diseases, but it is all about the food that we consume. Through interviewing real people and seeing real life changes, it helps to convince the audience to change their eating habits. This documentary works well because the audience can relate right after they are watching this.

III. What can you do to be a custodian of your garments?

“25% of the Carbon Footprint of clothes comes from the way we care for them” – @fash_rev

Besides being conscious of what you buy, people also need to be conscious of how to take care of their garments. The modern era changes our perception towards washing our clothes and most clothes are washed unnecessarily. Washing and drying produced 82 percent of energy use and produced 66 percent of solid waste and over half the emission to air during the process. Through doing laundry there is a lot to consider, which are the impact of the machine and detergent used that effects the garments. If it is not designed for resilience, it will result in further clothing purchases, which is what the fashion industry is currently experiencing.

III.I Creating a better relationship with your garments

A better relationship with your garments can start with the garment that you already own. Just because the garment you buy is cheap it does not mean that you can just use it one time and let it decay in your closet or return it back to the shop. In the end, those two options will become a landfill. One of the ways to improve our relationship with our garment is to improve our practice in doing everyday laundry.

Laundering can be referred to as a multi-sensory practice of our everyday life that involves the embodied of knowing, sensing, ways of doing to do in each stage. In the 1800s, where people used to boil their garments to do their laundry, where they do not wash their garments that often. Ever since the intervention of washing machine, people start washing their clothes even more and changes their definition of ‘dirty’ clothes. This practice creates new services such as dry cleaning, fabric softeners, and clothes dryers. Laundering becomes an active coordination of sociotechnical systems that are relatively independent. At the same time forms of work that can be shared as a group, allocated and managed between domestic and commercial arrangements. Environmental Assessment of Textiles, suggest that 7.5 percent of our clothes that we wash are ‘heavily soiled’ or over-washed. People start washing their clothes more due to their higher starters of cleanliness or because of their convenient devices that are available today, which is the washing machine. Tulia Jack suggests that people laundering today is not due to hygienic requirements, but instead because of the cultural mores. That being said, the way we do our laundry is important because if we do it too much it will ruin our garment. Also, excessive chemicals also decrease our garment lifetime. 

III.II What are people doing right now to improve this situation?

Due to the impact of washing damage, people start to throw away their garment which then only becomes landfill. Washing damage includes: stains that cannot be washed, misshapen during washing, faded colors or shrunk items. Fashion designer,  Eileen Fisher, is also starting to take part in this issue. Eileen Fisher is part of her Vision 2020 mission to make “eco-preferred” clothes, they started to be 20 percent sustainable when they started and now they are in their 68 percent sustainable. People called her ahead of Fisher time because she has this program called Renew, where she buys back the garment to encourage her customers to exchange their used garment for store credit. The old garment then is professionally cleaned and resold for a lower price or reworked into new items. By doing this it helps to reduce the amount of garment produced, which also means lower the amount of water used to grow the raw material and manufacture the garment.

At the Milan design week 2019, Fisher exhibited this installation showing the visitor with the reality of society’s overconsumption through repurposing the garments and materials from the brand’s own past collections to create a series of wall hangings, acoustic panels, and decorative objects. 

Waste No More Eileen Fisher

Fisher wanted to show the public the nightmare of the apparel industry, referring the news of how H&M as the biggest fast-fashion company owns $4.3 billion worth of unsold merchandise “sitting in a warehouse”. With all the water that is used to make the garment from the raw material through the process and manufacturing, in the end, it becomes a waste. This proves that the fashion industry is overproducing. Through this exhibition, they are showing the beautiful side of the garment, showing the ecru-and-ivory-and-light-pink-colored scraps that come together in a felting feat, creating a matrix pattern using crosshatch techniques. This is their artistic gesture to launch their new long-term plan for the Waste No More studio, an on-brand way to nudge consumers towards inevitably ethical choices from their closet to the living room. Fisher describes it as, “aesthetic activism.”

“It’s not about confrontation as much as it is about offering possibilities going forward’

– Eileen Fisher

IV. Designing for Exposure:

How can we change the current global water crisis problem through creating an exposure to people and improve their relationship with their garment?

Through this project,, we as a designer want to educate people to make a better decision for the future of the environment. There is no one solution that can solve this problem immediately. It will take time and effort to change the whole industry, especially people’s habits of buying have been changed throughout the year. Therefore, we want to expose the people with the global water crisis and want them to become a custodian of their garment. 

Concept Diagram – Interactive Mirror

To achieve our goal, we did multiple prototypes and our first working prototype was an interactive augmented reality mirror. In this prototype, we are exploring the potentials of changing people’s habits in the store. Referring to the V&A food exhibition and use interactivity to approach people’s interests. Our team acknowledges that this issue stands in a bigger spectrum, but we still believe that changes can be achieved by altering small things such as direct interactivity from your garment. Through this prototype, we bring up the question of what if shops have direct tags that explain the material cost of the garment before you purchase the clothes? Then we developed this project that can be scanned through phones just before people buy their garment. Therefore it gives more information about the garment. We are nudging the consumers towards more inevitable ethical choices so that they become more conscious before they buy their clothes. Augmented Reality Prototype second prototype is an interactive experience space that brings the participant and the garment into a dialogue. The participant will go into this store like space that features white shirts labeled as cotton, silk, and viscose. They can choose one of the three and go into the changing room and put on the shirt. Then, they proceed to the next room that is the experience room. On the shirt, there is an RFID tag that can be tagged and triggered the videos. There are two types of videos, the first one is showing how the garments are produced and manufacture. The aim of this video is to educate people on how their garment is made and hope that they will re-think how they will take care of their garment. The second video shows the beauty of the water pollution created by dying the garment. This is an interactive video, therefore people can interact with the video. This video supposedly shows the irony of the water pollution and the interactivity will create more connection between the user and the garment. Theory Concept Diagram

From the second prototype, we learned that our prototypes do not create strong impacts with the people. Referring to What the Health? documentary, that proves us that we can get people’s attention towards environmental problem through making a deeper connection. One of the ways is through storytelling of people’s lives are affected by farming our food and also the impact of changing our habit. The more they reveal about what happened in the real world, it creates more connection to people and re-think their habits. This is what we want our project to be through interactivity that is inspired by the V&A food exhibition, we want to create more fun and relatable projects. Also, the food exhibition is successful because people can relate to the interaction of the exhibition. Therefore, we wanted to create something similar based on what we learned from our previous prototypes and case studies. We want to expose the story of the global water crisis problem through interactive storytelling installation.

VI.I Future direction

As a future concept, we want to show the irony of the water pollution. Therefore, we want to bring back this idea of the beauty of water pollution to attract people’s attention. People will enter the room where they can see their reflection of water on the wall from the small bowl filled with water in the middle of the room. The water will be calm when there is no one near it and get turbulent as people approach it. This reflect how people impacted the water, it was clean but then people start throwing chemicals into the water and it becomes dirty. This then will develop a different ‘character’ behaviors to amplify the responsibility of people interacting. The visitors can hear every single movement of the water, while they are in the room. Each one of them will have a different story in this room depending on their connection and movements with it. They can also see their own reflection through the mirror of the bowl. The direct connection between the movement, sound, and reflection are the one that makes people connect with the art piece and feel that they are responsible with this creature, which also means causing the global water crisis. Through this project, we do not want to create confrontation, we want to expose the current global water crisis and hoping it can improve their relationship with their garment. Final Prototype

V. Conclusion

In this paper, I documented a range of prototypes to find a way to encourage people from becoming a customer to a custodian of their garment. I presented a series of design installation studying how to expose environmental problems to the public. It is debatable whether it changes their habits right away through these projects, but it might be will change the way they think about the problem.

Through the experiences, it shows it is hard to change people’s relationship with their garments. The presented examples show and prototypes the successful use of storytelling one of the best way to expose the wicked problem to the public. I see this as the key to the project and also a key to attract people’s attention. The next step would be trying to use storytelling so that people can have a more emotional connection with the global water crisis problem. 

VI. References

VI.I Bibliography

Ahmed, Imran, et al. The State of Fashion – 2019. McKinsey & Company – Business of Fashion, 2018, The State of Fashion – 2019,

Bigger, Elizabeth. “GenCloth.” Elizabeth Bigger, GenCloth, 31 Mar. 2019,

“BCI Farmer Results.” Better Cotton Initiative, Better Cotton Initiative, 2016,

English, Phoebe. “Introduction – Fashion & Sustainability.” Written Evidence Submitted by Phoebe English,, Sept. 2018,

Fashion Revolution. Instagram, Fashion Revolution, 2019,

Feitelberg , Rosemary. “Eileen Fisher Will Use Salone Del Mobile Installation to Remind the Fashion World to ‘Waste No More’.” WWD, WWD, 28 Mar. 2018,

Fletcher, Kate. Sustainable Fashion & Textiles – Design Journeys. Earthscan, 2008.

Houston, Jack. “Sneaky Ways Stores like H&M, Zara, and Uniqlo Get You to Spend More Money on Clothes.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 15 Jan. 2019,

Kaye-Smith, Holly Wilhelmina. “Doing Laundry More Sustainably: Disrupting Everyday Practices through Media Conversations.” School of Humanities and Communication Arts Western Sydney University, Western Sydney University, 2017, pp. 40—45.

Kerr, John, and John Lardy. Pulse of Fashion Industry – 2017. Global Fashion Agenda & The Boston Consulting Group, 2017, pp. 2—130, Pulse of Fashion Industry –

Kuhn, Keegan. What the Health? . Netflix, 16 June 2017,

“London Fashion Week September 2018 Facts and Figures.” Edited by The British Fashion Council, London Fashion Week September 2018 Facts and Figures, The British Fashion Council, Sept. 2018,

Leahy, Stephen. “From Not Enough to Too Much, the World’s Water Crisis Explained.” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 22 Mar. 2018,

Lehmann, Morten, et al. Pulse of Fashion Industry 2019 Update. Global Fashion Agenda, Boston Consulting Group, and Sustainable Apparel Coalition, 2019, Pulse of Fashion Industry 2019 Update.

Lieber, Chavie. “Why Start-Ups Keep Trying to Invent the Closet From Clueless.” The Business of Fashion, The Business of Fashion, 30 Aug. 2019,

Messina, Rab. “Long Ahead of Her Time, Eileen Fisher Is Now Doing to Homes What She Did to Clothes.” Frame, Frame Publishers, 24 Apr. 2019,

Nippress, Jayne, and Sally Vivian. Review of Data on Embodied Water in Clothing Summary Report. URS, 2012, Review of Data on Embodied Water in Clothing Summary Report.

Noble, Bethany. “Fashion: The Thirsty Industry.” Good On You, Good On You, 21 Mar. 2017,

Oxford Dictionaries. “Fashion: Definition of Fashion by Lexico.” Lexico Dictionaries | English, Lexico Dictionaries by Oxford, 2019,

Prentis, Jamie. “Food: Bigger than the Plate Is the Newest V&A Exhibition Taking on Food Waste.” Food: Bigger than the Plate Is the Newest V&A Exhibition Taking on Food Waste, The National, 2 June 2019,

Thomson, Lizzie. “From Insect Pâté to Bacteria, What to Know about the V&A’s New Food Exhibition.” Food: Bigger than the Plate at the V&A — Everything You Need to Know about the New Exhibition, Evening Standard, 16 May 2019,

Victoria and Albert Museum, publisher. V&A Mushroom Farm | FOOD: Bigger than the Plate. YouTube, YouTube, 5 Aug. 2019,

Villemain, Cyril. “UN Launches Drive to Highlight Environmental Cost of Staying Fashionable | UN News.” United Nations, United Nations, 24 Mar. 2019,

WWAP (UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme). 2019. The United NationsWorld Water Development Report 2019: Leaving No One Behind. Paris, UNESCO.

VI. II Figures

Figure 1.1 The British Summer Purchase Statistic

Fashion Revolution. Quotation of Water. Instagram, Barnardo’s UK, 11 Jul. 2019,

Figure 2.1 Total Water Footprint

Nippress, Jayne, and Sally Vivian. Review of Data on Embodied Water in Clothing Summary Report.

URS, 2012, Review of Data on Embodied Water in Clothing Summary Report, pp. iv.

Figure 2.2 Global water demand by sector (2014-2040)

WWAP (UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme). 2019. The United Nations World Water

Development Report 2019: Leaving No One Behind. Paris, UNESCO, p. 13.

Figure 2.3 A boy in the middle of a drought

WWAP (UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme). 2019. The United Nations World Water

Development Report 2019: Leaving No One Behind. Paris, UNESCO, p. 10.

Figure 2.4 Physical Water Stress

WWAP (UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme). 2019. The United Nations World Water

Development Report 2019: Leaving No One Behind. Paris, UNESCO, p. 14.

Figure 2.5 GenCloth Toolkit by Elizabeth Bigger

Bigger, Elizabeth. “GenCloth.” Elizabeth Bigger, GenCloth, 31 Mar. 2019,

Figure 2.6 Center for Genomic Gastronomy by LOCI Food

Author: Premakara, Austera

Figure 2.7 Story Telling Based on Real Experience

Kuhn, Keegan. What the Health? . Netflix, 16 June 2017,



Figure 3.1 Waste No More – Eileen Fisher

Messina, Rab. “Long Ahead of Her Time, Eileen Fisher Is Now Doing to Homes What She Did to

Clothes.” Frame, Frame Publishers, 24 Apr. 2019,


Figure 5.1 Concept Diagram – Interactive Mirror

Author: Ieridou, Marina; Premakara, Austera; Winarso, Arum

Figure 5.2 Augmented Reality Prototype

Author: Ieridou, Marina; Premakara, Austera; Winarso, Arum

Figure 5.3 Theory Concept Diagram

Author: Premakara, Austera

Figure 5.4 Final Prototype

Author: Premakara, Austera

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